Law No. 23 of 2006 Promulgating the Legal Profession Law

We, Hamad Bin Khalifa Al Thani, Emir of the State of Qatar,
Having considered: The constitution,
The Legal Profession Law promulgated by Law No. 10/1996, as amended;
The proposal made by the Minister of Justice;
Bill submitted by the Council of Ministers; and
After consultations with the Shura Council,
We do hereby enact as follows:
Enactment Clauses
Clause (1)
The attached Legal Profession Law shall come into full force and effect.
Clause (2)
Lawyers and law firms registered on the rolls provided for under Article 10 of the Legal Profession Law enacted by Law No. 10 of 1996 shall, as of the date whereon this law comes into force, submit applications to be registered on the rolls provided for in the attached Law within one year as of the effective date of this Law.
Clause (3)
The Minister of Justice shall issue the decisions and forms necessary for implementing the provisions of the attached Law. Until such decisions and forms are issued, the current applicable rules shall remain applicable, except where they are contrary to the provisions thereof.
Clause (4) – (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
Law No. (10)/1996 shall repeal the said Law.
Clause (5) – (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
All concerned parties, each within its respective mandates, implement this Law. It shall be published in the Official Gazette.

  • Article (1)
  • Except where the context otherwise requires, in the application of the provisions of this Law, the following terms shall have the meanings assigned thereto below:

    Profession: Legal profession.
    Minister: The Minister of Justice
    Ministry: The Ministry of Justice
    Courts: Courts of all types and degrees.
    Committee: Lawyers Admission Committee.
    Board: Lawyers Disciplinary Board

  • Article (2)
  • The legal profession is a liberal profession which aims at administering justice. It contributes, together with the judiciary, to establishing its rules, and helps litigants to defend their rights and freedoms. In practicing their profession, lawyers shall enjoy the rights and guarantees set out in this Law, and shall abide by the duties imposed thereon hereunder.

  • Article (3)
  • The legal profession may be practiced by lawyers only. The following acts are considered acts of the profession:
    Representing the concerned persons before courts, public prosecution, arbitration tribunals, judicial administrative authorities and criminal and administrative investigation bodies, and defending them in lawsuits initiated by or against them, as well as conducting pleadings and judicial proceedings related thereto.
    Giving legal opinion and advice.
    Drafting contracts, and taking the necessary procedures to register or notarize them.

  • Article (4)
  • As exceptions from the provisions of the foregoing Article:
    The Department of State Cases at the Ministry shall represent other Government Ministries and Governmental entities in all the acts set out under Item (1) of the preceding Article.
    For this purpose, the Department of State Cases shall submit motions, statements of claim, appeals, defenses and, in general, take all measures and actions necessary for the same.
    Subject to the approval of the Minister or his assignee and after consultations with the concerned ministries, governmental bodies, and public authorities and institutions, the Department of State Cases may engage a Qatari lawyer for lawsuits under consideration inside the country wherever the nature of the lawsuit so requires, or seek the assistance of others, as it may deem appropriate, for lawsuits under consideration outside the country.
    The members to the Department of State Cases shall have the following guarantees set out in Articles (31), (34), and (35) of this Law.
    2. The employees of private companies and organizations may conduct the acts set out in items (2) and (3) of the preceding Article, in accordance with the rules set out in the decisions made by the Minister.

  • Article (5)
  • By way of exception from the provisions of Articles (3) and (4) of this Law, the employees of Qatar Petroleum Company, who practiced legal profession for at least 2 years, may perform the acts of the Profession set forth under Article (3) of this Law, on behalf of the Qatar Petroleum, as well as the companies as regards which the Qatar Petroleum Company contributes to their capital, or incorporates, solely or jointly with others, in accordance with the rules set out in the Minister’s relevant decisions. Those who don’t satisfy the period condition set out in the preceding Paragraph, may engage in conducting the such acts under the supervision of those permitted to conduct them in accordance with the provisions of this Article on the same conditions set out in Article (23) of this Law, as far as this doesn’t contradict with the nature of their works. The employees of the Qatar Petroleum shall be licensed to practice such acts of profession by virtue of a decision from the committee.

  • Article (6) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • The concerned natural persons may authorize, for the purposes of appearance and defense on their behalf before the entities set forth under Article (3) of this Law, their spouses, relatives, and in-laws up to the fourth degree. This provision shall not apply before the Court of Cassation. The statement of appeal submitted to a court of appeal or the Court of Cassation shall be accompanied with a power of attorney for a lawyer permitted to appear before it.

  • Article (7)
  • By virtue of a decision from Minister, top-class law firms with specialized experiences may be granted licenses to practice the acts of profession as determined under such license. The said license shall be granted for a renewable term of five years.
    Such law firms shall be registered on the rolls of international law firms. Lawyers working for such law firms shall be registered on the rolls of practicing lawyers, in accordance with the terms and conditions provided for in this Law. They shall be subject to the provisions of this Law, except for the items (1) and (6) of the Articles (13) and Chapter Three hereof. The Council of Ministers shall issue a resolution indicating the rules and conditions for granting such law firms the said licenses and the obligations thereof.

  • Article (8)
  • Non-Qatari lawyers, who are duly licensed to practice law in their Countries, may request permission to appear before Qatari courts in particular cases, though they are not registered.
    The Qatari law firms may request permission to hire non-Qatari lawyers to appear before the court of cassation.
    It is the Minister who shall have powers to issue such permit, upon recommendations of the Committee, on the condition that a practicing lawyer shall join the non-Qatari lawyer.
    The procedures for submission of such application and recording it in the register intended for this purpose shall be determined by a decision from Minister.

  • Article (9) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • The Committee, according to its rules, may license non-Qatari lawyers, who work at Qatari law firms, to appear in the name of their firms before the entities provided for under Item (1) of Article (3) of this Law.

    The Committee, according to its rules, may license non-Qatari lawyers, who work at Qatari law firms, to appear in the name of their firms before the entities provided for under Item (1) of Article (3) of this Law.

  • Article (10) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • A committee shall be established at the Ministry, and such Committee shall be called the “Lawyers Admission Committee” and shall be constituted as follows:
    The term of membership to the Committee shall be three years, subject to renewal for similar term(s).
    The Council of Ministers shall issue a decree determining the constitution of such Committee.
    The Committee shall develop internal regulations governing its functions.

  • Article (11) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • The Committee shall assume the powers prescribed for it under this law, and it may be entrusted with other powers pertaining to law profession by virtue of a decision from the Minister.
    It shall also undertake classifying the Qatari law firm, in accordance with such rules and procedures as may be determined by a resolution from the Minister.

  • Article (12)
  • The following rolls shall be created at the Ministry:
    The roll of practicing lawyers, to which the following rolls shall be attached:
    The roll of trainee lawyers;
    The roll of lawyers permitted to appear before first instance courts;
    The roll of lawyers permitted to appear before appeal courts; and
    The roll of lawyers permitted to appear before courts of cassation;
    The roll of law firms;
    The roll of international law firms; and
    The roll of non-practicing lawyers;
    The Minister shall issue a decision indicating the forms of the rolls set forth under this Article.
    Other specific rolls may be created by a decision from the Minister, upon a proposal from the Committee, which shall indicate such forms and determine the relevant conditions and system of registration.

  • Article (13) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • Lawyers registered on the practicing lawyers roll shall satisfy the following conditions:
    1. To be of Qatari national or a citizen of a GCC Country, on the condition that reciprocity is observed and the approval of the Committee is procured.
    To hold a law degree from a recognized university, or, for those who had previously worked in judiciary or the public prosecution for a period not less than 2 years, to hold a certificate in Shariaa.
    To have full civil capacity, and be at least at the age of 21 years old.
    To be recognized as having good conduct and reputation and respecting such profession.
    Not to be convicted of a felony or a crime involving moral turpitude or dishonesty, except where he has been rehabilitated.
    To have completed the term of training, as specified under the provisions of this law.
    To pass the personal interview and the tests, in accordance with the rules laid down by the Committee.
    The Qatari faculty members, who obtained the PhD degree and who teach law in a recognized university, may be enrolled in the roll of practicing lawyers.
    Any practicing lawyer who ceases to satisfy any of the conditions set out in this Article shall be removed from the roll of practicing lawyers. Such removal shall be made by virtue of a decision from the Committee.
    A lawyer may appeal the removal decision before the Committee, and may challenge its decision on the appeal, in accordance with the provisions of Article 29 of this Law.

  • Article (14) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • A lawyer registered on the roll of lawyers permitted to appear before courts of first instance shall have successfully completed the term of training provided for under Article (20) hereof. The registration application shall be submitted to the Committee along with the required documents, and a certificate from the Center for Judicial and Legal Studies indicating that the lawyer has successfully completed the prescribed training term, as well as a certificate from the lawyer at whose office he completed the training, certifying that the training term was completed, and indicating the cases handled by the lawyer during the training. The Committee may request from the lawyer, in whose office the training was received, a report on the efficiency, the professional conduct of that trainee lawyer, in addition to the works practiced, and may request his recommendations in this regard.
    The Committee shall issue its decision admitting or rejecting such application, or extending the term of training for a further term, along with the grounds of its decision. It shall notify the applicant by a registered letter or any similar manner. A lawyer whose application is rejected or whose training term is extended may appeal against such decision, and may challenge the decision rejecting the appeal, in accordance with Article (29) hereof.
    A lawyer registered on the roll of lawyers permitted to appear before courts of first instance, may open an office under his name, and shall have the right to appear and plead before this Court.

  • Article (15) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • For a lawyer to be registered on the roll of lawyers permitted to appear before court of appeal, he shall have been practicing law for at least five years as of the date of registration on the roll of lawyers permitted to appear before courts of first instance. Further, an application – accompanied with the documents required for for registration on the said roll – shall be submitted. The Committee shall review the copies of such briefs, judicial documents and contracts as may have been prepared by the lawyer and the cases in which he was engaged, as well as other documents and papers indicating his efficiency to appear before courts of appeal. The Committee shall render its decision, whether by acceptance or rejection, after ensuring that the legal conditions for registration were satisfied. Should a rejection decision was issued, it must contain its grounds.
    A lawyer may appeal before the Committee any decision rejecting registration, and may challenge its decision on such appeal, in accordance with the provisions of Article 29 of this Law.
    Any person who practiced works equivalent to the legal profession for at least 7 years may be registered on the roll referred to in the preceding Article. The Minister shall issue a decision indicating the equivalent works based on a recommendation from the Committee.
    A lawyer registered on the roll of lawyers permitted to appear before courts of appeal shall have the right to appear and plead before all courts except for the Court of Cassation.

  • Article (16) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • To be registered on the roll of lawyers permitted to appear before the Court of Cassation, the applicant must fall under one of the following categories: 1. Lawyers permitted to appear before courts of appeal and have spent a period of ten years in practice of law, provided that they should have been registered on the roll of lawyers permitted to appear before this court for at least 3 years. Their registration application must be governed by the provisions set out in Paragraph (1) of the preceding Article. The Qatari faculty members who obtained the PhD degree and who have taught law in a recognized university for a period of 10 years.
    Previous judges and Public Prosecution members who held such positions for a period not less than 10 years. Those who worked in any legal field at ministries, other governmental bodies, public authorities or institutions, or private companies or institutions for a period not less than 10 years, in accordance with such rules as may be issued by virtue of a decision from the Minister.
    A lawyer may appeal before the Committee any decision rejecting registration, and may challenge its decision on such appeal, in accordance with the provisions of Article 29 of this Law.

  • Article (17)
  • The lawyer may practice law, solely or jointly with other lawyers, or in the form of a civil law firm.
    The Minster shall issue a decision including the form of the articles of association governing such law firms.
    The law firm shall be registered on the roll of law firms. Such registration shall include the main data contained in the articles of association thereof. Every lawyer at the law firm shall be registered on the practicing lawyer roll.

  • Article (18)
  • A lawyer may only practice the legal profession after taking an oath before the Committee in the following terms: “I swear by Almighty God that I will perform my work in good faith and honor and that I will preserve the confidence of legal profession, observe its traditions and ethics and respect the laws of the Countries”.
    The taking of the oath shall be recorded in the minutes of Committee’s meetings.

  • Article (19) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • The practice of the legal profession may be combined with the following:
    Assuming a ministerial position or presidency of any parliaments or municipal councils;
    Engaging in trade;
    However, holding stakes and shares in shareholding companies shall not be deemed as engaging in trade.
    Working at any ministry, government agencies, public bodies or institutions, associations, companies or banks, or working for individuals.
    Working at another lawyer’s office by the lawyer shall not be deemed combining the legal profession with another job.
    Engaging in any work which contradicts the lawyer’s dignity or which contradicts with the requirements of the profession.
    Qatari faculty members who obtained a PhD degree and who teach law in a recognized university shall be exempted from the previous combination prohibition provisions.

  • Article (20) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • The applicant who request to be registered on the roll of practicing lawyers shall firstly be registered on the roll of trainee-lawyers, in case of his failure to fulfill the conditions of registration in any other rolls attached thereto, and shall successfully complete a training term of six month at the Center for Judicial and Legal Studies, in addition to eighteen months at a practicing lawyer’s office who engaged in practicing the legal practice, or worked at the judiciary or public prosecution for at least five years. A trainee-lawyer may, during the period of enrollment at the Center for Judicial and Legal Studies, receive a monthly remuneration, the value and entitlement conditions of such remuneration shall be determined by a resolution from the Council of Ministers. By virtue of a resolution from the Committee, and in accordance with the rules it lays down, such remuneration may be paid by the Ministry until the end of the prescribed training period.

  • Article (21) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • The Qatari faculty members who obtained a PhD degree and who teach law at a recognized university, or those who worked in the judiciary, public prosecution or performed any other legal work in any of the ministries, government agencies, public bodies or institutions, or private companies or organizations for at least 2 years, shall be exempted from the training term. The term of training shall be reduced by the period spent in engagement of the said works. Any exemption from or reduction of the training term shall be by virtue of a decision from the Committee.

  • Article (22)
  • The practicing lawyers mentioned under Article (20) hereof shall accept trainee-lawyers who apply for training at their offices, and supervise such training and provide trainees with sufficient experience. Should the trainee-lawyer fails to find a lawyer to be trained at his office, the Committee shall issue a decision to enroll him at an office of one of the lawyers referred to in the preceding Paragraph. That latter lawyer may not, except where an excuse acceptable to the Committee exists, refuse the enrollment of such trainee-lawyer at his office.

  • Article (23)
  • A trainee-lawyer may not appear in court in his name, but he may rather appear on behalf of the lawyer who supervises his training. A trainee-lawyer may not also sign the statements of claim, submissions and papers submitted to the courts. However, a trainee-lawyer may appear before the Court of First Instance in his name after the elapse of one year as of the date of his registration. A trainee-lawyer may appear before the bodies provided for under Article (3) hereof on behalf of the lawyer at whose office he receives training.

  • Article (24)
  • The trainee-lawyer may not open an office in his name during the training period. In case of violating this provision, the Committee shall issue an order to close this office, without prejudice to any criminal or disciplinary prosecution of the offending lawyer. A trainee-lawyer may appeal against such closure order before the Committee, in accordance with the provisions of Article (29) hereof.

  • Article (25)
  • Applications for registration on the rolls set out under Article (12) hereof shall be submitted to the Chairman of the Committee, along with the supporting documents, in accordance with the provisions of this Law and its implementing decisions. While observing the order of their submittal to the Committee, these applications shall be registered in a special record intended for this purpose.

  • Article (26)
  • The lawyers shall submit applications for renewal of their registration on their respective rolls before the 1st of January of each year. Non-practicing lawyers shall be exempted from the same.

  • Article (27) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • The annual enrollment fees and the enrollment renewal fees shall be determined by a decision to be made by the Minister, and upon the proposal of the Committee. In the event where the lawyer fails to pay the enrollment renewal fees on time, in accordance with the preceding Article, the Committee shall, after notifying such lawyer by a registered letter or by any other similar method, transfer his name to the roll of non-practicing lawyers. In such case, the lawyer may only be re-registered on the roll of practicing lawyers after paying the enrollment renewal fees, in addition to the delayed renewal fees. No fees may be charged for the transferring of the name to the roll of non-practicing lawyers.

  • Article (28)
  • Should the lawyer cease practicing the profession, or should any impediment hinders his practice thereof for any reason whatsoever, such lawyer may request the Committee to transfer his name to the roll of the non-practicing lawyers. Further, a lawyer registered on the roll on non-practicing lawyers may request the Committee to transfer his name back to the roll of the practicing lawyers should he desire to go back to practice or if the impediment hindering his practice ceases to exist.

  • Article (29) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • Upon an invitation from its Chairperson, the Committee shall convene to consider the applications submitted thereto, according to the order of their submission. The Committee may also request the concerned parties to submit any additional clarifications, documents or information, as it is deemed necessary. It may also invite the concerned parties for discussion.
    The Committee shall issue a resolution recording the name of any person who satisfies the required conditions, to transfer his name from a particular roll to another roll, or to reject the application provided stating the underlying reasons of such rejection, within thirty days as from the application submission date. The applicant shall be informed of the Committee’s decision by a registered letter with acknowledgment of receipt or by any similar means.
    Any applicant, whose application is rejected, shall have the right to appeal it before the Committee within thirty days as of the date of receipt of the rejection. Subject to hearing the applicant’s arguments, the Committee shall decide upon such appeal within thirty days from the date on which the appeal is filed.
    Moreover, the Committee’s decision may be challenged before the Court of Appeal within 60 days as of the date on which the rejection notice is served upon the complainant or, if the committee didn’t decide upon it, after the elapse of the period prescribed for deciding upon such appeal.
    Registration on the roll shall only be effective after the payment of the prescribed fee.
    The applicant shall be given a formal certificate, signed by the Committee’s Chairperson, containing the particulars of registration.
    Except for the registration on the roll of trainee-lawyers, the certificate of registration on the roll of practicing lawyers shall be deemed as a professional license.

  • Article (30)
  • The applicant whose application is rejected may submit a new application only after the elapse of six months as of the date on which the Committee rendered its resolution.

  • Article (31) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • The bodies before which the lawyer is practicing shall be required to provide him with the facilities required for his good performance of duty. They shall also permit the said lawyer to attend investigations and review the documents of the cases, except where the interest of investigations otherwise requires. This must be established in writing in the case file.
    During investigations, the lawyer may obtain full copies of the case document, except where the interest of investigations otherwise requires. If his request for obtaining copies of the case documents were rejected, the lawyer may file an appeal before the Public Prosecutor, within 10 days as of the date of notification of the rejection of the request.
    The Public Prosecutor shall determine such appeal within 15 days as of the date of submission. Should this period elapses without a reply, this shall be deemed a rejection of the request. The Public Prosecutor’s decision as regards the appeal shall be final.

  • Article (32)
  • If an attorney acts as an attorney in a case, he may authorize another lawyer to assume lawyer’s own responsibility, to act on his behalf and appear before the court and file pleadings or undertake other litigation proceedings without a special power-of-attorney, except where the power-of-attorney issued for him provides otherwise. Likewise, should the lawyer is an originating litigant in a case, he may authorize another lawyer to act as stated above with no need for a special power-of-attorney.

  • Article (33)
  • No attachment may be imposed on an office of a lawyer nor the content thereof required for the practice of the legal profession.

  • Article (34)
  • Any person, who assaults or otherwise insults the lawyer, whether verbally, by sign or threat, while performing his professional duties or as a result thereof, shall be punished by the penalty prescribed for the committing of the same crime against any of the members of the court.

  • Article (35)
  • Except in case of flagrante delicto, a lawyer may not be arrested, be put on provisional detention, be interrogated or his office be inspected for matters pertaining to the performance of his profession, except by an order of a director of prosecution, by virtue of an order issued by the competent judge.

  • Article (36)
  • Lawyers shall be entitled to charge fees for the duties performed by them within the scope of his profession. Lawyers shall also be entitled to redeem all the expenses incurred while undertaking the legal proceedings or the works assigned thereto.
    Should the case, subject of the agreement, gives rise to other subsidiary cases that were not agreed upon, the lawyer shall be entitled to charge fees for such matters. Where a lawyer reaches, as authorized by his client, a settlement of a case by way of conciliation or arbitration, he shall be entitled to receive the agreed upon fees, except where there is an agreement to the contrary.

  • Article (37) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • A lawyer’s fees shall be determined according to the agreement made with the client. A lawyer may agree to fees that doesn’t exceed (10%) of the awarded amount in the case at issue.

  • Article (38)
  • Unless otherwise agreed between lawyer and the client, the lawyer-client relationship shall not come to an end, and the lawyer shall not be entitled to receive the fees thereof in full, except as of the date of execution of the judgment made on the case or the matter entrusted thereto.

  • Article (39)
  • Should the client or his heirs removed a lawyer before completing the mission entrusted thereto, such lawyer shall be entitled to receive his fees in full; However, should there is an acceptable justification for such removal; the lawyer shall be entitled to receive fees for the efforts made and the outcome achieved by him. The agreement made between both parties, if any, shall be taken into account while determining such fees.

  • Article (40)
  • If the lawyer’s fees were not agreed upon by a written agreement, or if the agreement was found null and void, both the lawyer and the client may seek an assessment of such fees, by instituting an action by ordinary means before the competent court.
    While assessing the due fees, the Court shall take into consideration the importance of the case, the efforts made by the lawyer and the outcome achieved.

  • Article (41)
  • Where there is a written agreement as regards the due fees, the lawyer shall be entitled to retain the original papers and documents belonging to his client or retain the amounts collected on behalf of and in favor of his client, proportionate to the amount of fees claimed by the lawyer which remained unpaid by the client in violation of the agreement.
    If there is no written agreement as regards the fees, the lawyer shall be entitled to obtain, at the expense of his client, extracts of the original papers and documents as deemed appropriate to be relied upon for claiming the fees, and shall be bound to give such documents back once the lawyer receives from client the expenses for their issuance.

  • Article (42)
  • The lawyer shall have a lien, to receive his fees, on the funds awarded to his client as a result of the work of the lawyer or as a result of a judgment on the case at issue.

  • Article (43) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • The lawyer’s right to claim his fees from the client or from client’s heirs shall lapse, if there is no written agreement as regards it, by the expiry of five calendar years as of the date of expiry of the power-of-attorney or the death of the client, as the case may be, and this period shall be interrupted by claiming such fees by a registered letter with acknowledgment of receipt requested or by any similar means.

  • Article (44)
  • If the lawyer dies or becomes totally disabled to practice his professional duties, the Committee shall appoint a lawyer as a representative of the lawyer’s heirs, or of the lawyer who becomes totally disabled, to wind up the lawyer’s office works and report to the Committee.

  • Article (45)
  • The right of citizens to establish associations is guaranteed under the conditions and circumstances set out in the Law.

  • Article (46)
  • Individuals have the right to communicate with public authorities.

  • Article (47)
  • Freedom of expression of opinion and scientific research is guaranteed under the conditions and circumstances set forth in the Law.

  • Article (48)
  • Freedom of the press and media, shall be guaranteed in accordance with the Law.

  • Article (49)
  • All citizens have the right to education, and the State shall endeavour to make general education compulsory and free of charge in accordance with the applicable laws and regulations of the State.

  • Article (50)
  • Freedom to practice religious rites shall be guaranteed to all persons in accordance with the Law and the requirements of the maintenance of public order and morality.

  • Article (51)
  • The right of inheritance shall be maintained and governed by Shari’a Law.

  • Article (52)
  • Every person who is a legal resident of the State of Qatar shall enjoy the protection of his person and property in accordance with the provisions of the Law.

  • Article (53)
  • Defending the country is the duty of every citizen.

  • Article (54)
  • A public post is a national service. Those persons who perform public roles/duties shall at all times act in the public interest.

  • Article (55)
  • Public funds are inviolable and their protection shall be the duty of everyone in accordance with the Law.

  • Article (56)
  • Public confiscation of property is prohibited. Private property confiscation is only by the courts and in cases specified by the Law.

  • Article (57)
  • Respect for the Constitution, compliance with the laws issued by the Public Authorities, abiding by the requirements of public order and public decorum, and observing national traditions and deep-rooted customs are duties of all who reside in the State of Qatar or enter its territory.

  • Article (58)
  • The extradition of political refugees is prohibited, and the Law shall determine the conditions for the granting of political asylum.

  • Article (59)
  • The people are the source of power, and they shall exercise the same in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.

  • Article (60)
  • The system of government is based on the separation of powers and their collaboration in the manner specified in this Constitution.

  • Article (61)
  • Legislative authority shall be vested in the Shura Council as prescribed in this Constitution.

  • Article (62)
  • Executive authority shall be vested in the Emir, and he shall be assisted by the Council of Ministers as specified in this Constitution.

  • Article (63)
  • Judicial Authority shall be vested in the courts of law as prescribed in this Constitution; and judgments of the court shall be pronounced in the name of the Emir.

  • Article (65)
  • The Emir is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. He shall supervise the same with the assistance of the Defence Council under his direct authority. The said Council shall be constituted by an Emiri Resolution, which will also determine the functions thereof.

  • Article (66)
  • The Emir shall represent the State internally and externally, and in all international relations.

  • Article (67)
  • The Emir shall discharge the following functions:-
    Drawing up the general policy of the State with the assistance of the Council of Ministers.
    Ratification and promulgation of laws; no law may be issued unless ratified by the Emir.
    Summoning the Council of Ministers to convene at any time deemed necessary in the public interest; the Emir shall preside over the meetings of the Council of Ministers, which he attends.
    Appointment of civil servants and military personnel and termination of their service in accordance with the Law.
    Accreditation of diplomatic and consular missions.
    Granting pardons or commuting penalties in accordance with the Law.
    Conferring civilian and military orders and badges of honour in accordance with the Law.
    Establishment and regulation of ministries and other government bodies and setting their functions.
    Establishment and regulation of such consultative bodies as are required to assist him in conducting State affairs.
    Any other functions vested in him by this Constitution or the Law.

  • Article (68)
  • The Emir shall conclude treaties and agreements by decree and refer them to the Shura Council, accompanied by appropriate explanatory memos. The treaty or agreement shall have the power of law after ratification and publication in the Official Gazette. However, reconciliation treaties and those that pertain to the territory of the State, relate to the right of sovereignty or to the public or private rights of the citizen, or involve an amendment to the laws of the State, shall come into force when the same are issued as a law.All treaty terms shall be expressed on their face and no terms shall be implied.

  • Article (69)
  • The Emir may issue a decree declaring martial law in the country in exceptional cases specified by the Law, and in such cases the Emir may take all urgent requisite measures to counter any threat that undermines the safety of the State, the integrity of its territories or the security of its people and interests, or that prevents the organs of the State from performing their duties. However, the decree must specify the nature of such exceptional cases where martial law can be declared and specify measures which should be taken to return to the Rule of Law. The Shura Council shall be notified of this decree within the fifteen days following its issue, and in the event that the Council is not in session for any reason whatsoever, the Council shall be notified of the decree at its first meeting. Martial law shall be declared for a limited period and the same shall not be extended unless approved by the Shura Council.

  • Article (70)
  • In cases of extreme urgency, or force majeure that require measures of utmost urgency by issuing special decree-laws, and in such cases when the Shura Council is not in session, the Emir may issue pertinent decrees that have the power of law. Such decree-laws shall be submitted to the Shura Council at its first meeting, and the Council may, within a maximum of forty days from the date of submission and with a two-thirds majority of its members, reject any of these decree-laws, or request amendment thereof to be effected within a specified period of time. Such decree-laws shall cease to have the power of law from the date of their rejection by the Council or when the period for effecting the amendments has expired.

  • Article (71)
  • Defensive war shall be declared by an Emiri Decree and aggressive war is prohibited.

  • Article (72)
  • The Emir shall appoint the Prime Minister, accept his resignation and remove the Prime Minister from office by an Emiri Order, and the resignation of the Prime Minister or his removal from office shall include all other ministers. In the event of acceptance of resignation or removal from office, the outgoing Council shall continue to conduct urgent business on a temporary emergency basis until such time as a new Council is appointed.

  • Article (73)
  • The Emir shall appoint ministers by an Emiri Order on nomination by the Prime Minister, and he shall accept resignations of ministers and relieve them from office in the same way. Where the resignation of a minister has been accepted, the minister may be entrusted to continue the conduct of urgent business in his role as former minister until his successor is appointed.

  • Article (74)
  • The Emir shall, in a special session convened by the Shura Council prior to the discharge of his functions, take the following solemn oath: “I, …, do solemnly swear by Almighty Allah to respect Shari’a Law, the Constitution and the Law, protect the independence of the State, safeguard its territorial integrity, and defend the freedom and interests of its people”.

  • Article (75)
  • The Emir shall seek public opinion on important issues pertaining to the interests of the State in a referendum. The question to be decided by such a referendum shall be deemed to be accepted if approved by the majority of voters, and the result of the referendum shall be binding and effective from the date of its announcement. The results shall be published in the Official Gazette.

  • Article (77)
  • The Shura Council shall consist of forty-five members, thirty of whom shall be elected by direct, general secret ballot, and the Emir shall appoint the remaining fifteen members from amongst the ministers or any other persons.The term of office of the appointed members of the Shura Council shall expire when these members resign their seats or are relieved of their posts.

  • Article (78)
  • The election system shall be determined by legislation in which the conditions and procedures of nomination and election are specified.

  • Article (45) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • A lawyer shall have an appropriate office for the practice of the legal profession, and inform the Committee of the address of his office and any changes thereto. The Committee may grant exemptions from the preceding condition for a specific period, pursuant to the conditions and rules laid down thereby. The lawyer’s office shall be deemed as an elected domicile to which addressed the legal and judicial notifications of his clients, according to the Law

  • Article (46)
  • A lawyer may not hire at his office any person, to practice law, other than those registered on the roll of practicing lawyers, and may not hire at his office any lawyer whose name was removed from the roll or who was disbarred, pursuant to the provisions hereof.
    Subject to the provisions of the foregoing paragraph, the lawyer may hire, at his office, persons with legal expertise, as well as non-Qatari lawyers licensed to practice law in their countries.

  • Article (47) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • While practicing the professional lawyer may not advertise himself in any means of advertisement, or use propagandistic or solicitation method, nor to use brokers for the same. This doesn’t include the following:
    Placing a sign with his name and legal qualifications on his office;
    Placing a sign at the building of his former office to inform of the location of his new office.
    Having a website for the office on the internet, in accordance with the rules laid down by the Committee.

  • Article (48)
  • No person – who had held any ministerial position, public or private position, and terminated his service for them, and engaged thereafter in practicing law – may accept personally or through a lawyer who acts on his behalf, or undertake any legal proceeding against the entity for which he had previously worked for a period of five years following the date of terminating his relationship with such entity.
    Likewise, no judge or prosecutor, who practices law, may represent – by himself or by another lawyer- a client in a case brought before him while performing his duties, or in any other action related thereto.

  • Article (49)
  • A lawyer shall refrain from acting as an attorney or providing any assistance, even by expressing opinion, to the opponent of his client, as regards the same dispute for which he was retained, or in any other dispute throughout the period at which the dispute is under consideration. In all events, a lawyer may not represent conflicting interests.
    This prohibition shall apply to any person, of whatsoever capacity, working for the lawyer at the same office.

  • Article (50)
  • The lawyer shall abide by the rules ethics, honor, honesty and integrity in his professional and personal conduct, and shall perform all the duties imposed upon him by the law and the code of ethics and best practices of the legal profession.

  • Article (51)
  • A lawyer shall bear responsibility to his client for performing the duties entrusted thereto, in accordance with the provisions of the law and the terms of the power of attorney.
    To this end, a lawyer shall keep all the information disclosed to him by his client, as well as the received papers and documents confidential, and shall pay the client all amounts received on his behalf.

  • Article (52)
  • A lawyer may not purchase the disputed rights, in whole or part, or to agree to take a part thereof instead of his fees. A lawyer may not enter into any agreement as regards the fees, which renders him having interest in the action or in the work entrusted thereto.

  • Article (53)
  • To appear before courts, a lawyer shall abide by the lawyers dress code as specified by the Committee.

  • Article (54)
  • A lawyer shall represent his client by virtue of a power-of-attorney authenticated pursuant to the law. A lawyer shall deposit any such power-of-attorney belonging thereto in the case file. However, if the power-of-attorney is of a general nature, it shall be sufficient for the court to review it, and to record its number, date and authenticating authority in the hearing’s transcript, and it shall attach a photocopy thereof to the case file.
    If a client appears in a court accompanied by a lawyer, the Court shall record such appearance in the hearing’s transcript. Such appearance shall be deemed serve as authenticated power-of-attorney. In such case, the fees prescribed for authenticating a power-of-attorney shall be charged.

  • Article (55)
  • If, while being at a court session to perform his duty or because of his duty, a lawyer commits a breach of order or any other illegal act which renders him subject to disciplinary or criminal punishment, the Chairman of the session shall order drafting a report which records the occurrence of such act, and shall refer the lawyer to the Department of Legal Affairs at the Ministry to take disciplinary measures against him pursuant to the provisions of this law, or to the Attorney General to take the criminal actions against such Lawyer if the act committed by him constitutes a crime punishable by law. The Committee must be informed of the outcome of such measures.
    Neither the Chairman who was presiding over the court session wherein the act committed by the lawyer had occurred, nor any member of the court’s bench may be a member to the board or the court which will try the lawyer on a disciplinary or criminal actions, or to the court which hears any challenge filed against the decision of the disciplinary board. As exception from the provisions of the first paragraph, the court may try the lawyer if he commits the assault misdemeanor referred to in Article (65) of the Civil and Commercial Procedure Law enacted by law No (13)/1990.

  • Article (56)
  • A lawyer may not make statements or publish anything on the actions as regards which he was retained, if such acts of the lawyer may affect the course of these actions.

  • Article (57)
  • A lawyer may not disclose any facts or information which comes to his knowledge because of his profession, even after expiry of his power-of-attorney, except where such disclosure is intended to prevent the commitment of any crime or misdemeanor, or to report the occurrence thereof. In addition, a lawyer may not give a testimony against his client, in a dispute as regards which he was retained or consulted, and such lawyer shall not be obliged to give such testimony.
    A lawyer shall not disclose personal matters which may be insulting or offending to the opponents, attorneys or witnesses, and shall not impugn their reputation, honor or dignity, except where the same was required for defending the interests of his client.

  • Article (58)
  • A lawyer may not withdraw from a case at inappropriate time, In case of such withdrawal, the attorney shall inform his client of the same by a registered letter with acknowledgment of receipt and continue undertaking the case for at least one month, whenever such continuance is necessary for defending the interests of his client.
    In such case, the court shall adjourn the case for an adequate period, so as to enable the client to retain another lawyer, if the client so desires.

  • Article (59)
  • Upon expiry of the power of attorney for whatsoever reasons, a lawyer shall return to the client the deed of power of attorney and the original documentation, except where they were deposited on the case file. A lawyer shall also give the client photocopies of submissions and notices received on client’s behalf.
    However, a lawyer shall not be obliged to submit to his client the draft documents written in the case, the documents pertaining to the work performed by the lawyer, or the letters received by the lawyer from the client. upon request of the client, a lawyer shall give his client photocopies of these documents after receiving the expenses for making copies thereof.

  • Article (60)
  • The right of the client to file a complaint against a lawyer before the concerned body shall abate by the lapse of 6 months as of the date of his knowledge of all the facts related to the complaint. Furthermore, the client’s right to request the lawyer to return the papers and documentation given to him shall abate by the lapse of five years as of the date of expiry of the power of attorney. Such period shall be interrupted by requesting such documents by a registered letter with acknowledgment of receipt or by any similar means.

  • Article (61)
  • Legislative authority shall be vested in the Shura Council as prescribed in this Constitution.

  • Article (62)
  • Executive authority shall be vested in the Emir, and he shall be assisted by the Council of Ministers as specified in this Constitution.

  • Article (63)
  • Judicial Authority shall be vested in the courts of law as prescribed in this Constitution; and judgments of the court shall be pronounced in the name of the Emir.

  • Article (65)
  • The Emir is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. He shall supervise the same with the assistance of the Defence Council under his direct authority. The said Council shall be constituted by an Emiri Resolution, which will also determine the functions thereof.

  • Article (66)
  • The Emir shall represent the State internally and externally, and in all international relations.

  • Article (67)
  • The Emir shall discharge the following functions:-
    Drawing up the general policy of the State with the assistance of the Council of Ministers.
    Ratification and promulgation of laws; no law may be issued unless ratified by the Emir.
    Summoning the Council of Ministers to convene at any time deemed necessary in the public interest; the Emir shall preside over the meetings of the Council of Ministers, which he attends.
    Appointment of civil servants and military personnel and termination of their service in accordance with the Law.
    Accreditation of diplomatic and consular missions.
    Granting pardons or commuting penalties in accordance with the Law.
    Conferring civilian and military orders and badges of honour in accordance with the Law.
    Establishment and regulation of ministries and other government bodies and setting their functions.
    Establishment and regulation of such consultative bodies as are required to assist him in conducting State affairs.
    Any other functions vested in him by this Constitution or the Law.

  • Article (68)
  • The Emir shall conclude treaties and agreements by decree and refer them to the Shura Council, accompanied by appropriate explanatory memos. The treaty or agreement shall have the power of law after ratification and publication in the Official Gazette. However, reconciliation treaties and those that pertain to the territory of the State, relate to the right of sovereignty or to the public or private rights of the citizen, or involve an amendment to the laws of the State, shall come into force when the same are issued as a law.All treaty terms shall be expressed on their face and no terms shall be implied.

  • Article (69)
  • The Emir may issue a decree declaring martial law in the country in exceptional cases specified by the Law, and in such cases the Emir may take all urgent requisite measures to counter any threat that undermines the safety of the State, the integrity of its territories or the security of its people and interests, or that prevents the organs of the State from performing their duties. However, the decree must specify the nature of such exceptional cases where martial law can be declared and specify measures which should be taken to return to the Rule of Law. The Shura Council shall be notified of this decree within the fifteen days following its issue, and in the event that the Council is not in session for any reason whatsoever, the Council shall be notified of the decree at its first meeting. Martial law shall be declared for a limited period and the same shall not be extended unless approved by the Shura Council.

  • Article (70)
  • In cases of extreme urgency, or force majeure that require measures of utmost urgency by issuing special decree-laws, and in such cases when the Shura Council is not in session, the Emir may issue pertinent decrees that have the power of law. Such decree-laws shall be submitted to the Shura Council at its first meeting, and the Council may, within a maximum of forty days from the date of submission and with a two-thirds majority of its members, reject any of these decree-laws, or request amendment thereof to be effected within a specified period of time. Such decree-laws shall cease to have the power of law from the date of their rejection by the Council or when the period for effecting the amendments has expired.

  • Article (71)
  • Defensive war shall be declared by an Emiri Decree and aggressive war is prohibited.

  • Article (72)
  • The Emir shall appoint the Prime Minister, accept his resignation and remove the Prime Minister from office by an Emiri Order, and the resignation of the Prime Minister or his removal from office shall include all other ministers. In the event of acceptance of resignation or removal from office, the outgoing Council shall continue to conduct urgent business on a temporary emergency basis until such time as a new Council is appointed.

  • Article (73)
  • The Emir shall appoint ministers by an Emiri Order on nomination by the Prime Minister, and he shall accept resignations of ministers and relieve them from office in the same way. Where the resignation of a minister has been accepted, the minister may be entrusted to continue the conduct of urgent business in his role as former minister until his successor is appointed.

  • Article (74)
  • The Emir shall, in a special session convened by the Shura Council prior to the discharge of his functions, take the following solemn oath: “I, …, do solemnly swear by Almighty Allah to respect Shari’a Law, the Constitution and the Law, protect the independence of the State, safeguard its territorial integrity, and defend the freedom and interests of its people”.

  • Article (75)
  • The Emir shall seek public opinion on important issues pertaining to the interests of the State in a referendum. The question to be decided by such a referendum shall be deemed to be accepted if approved by the majority of voters, and the result of the referendum shall be binding and effective from the date of its announcement. The results shall be published in the Official Gazette.

  • Article (77)
  • The Shura Council shall consist of forty-five members, thirty of whom shall be elected by direct, general secret ballot, and the Emir shall appoint the remaining fifteen members from amongst the ministers or any other persons.The term of office of the appointed members of the Shura Council shall expire when these members resign their seats or are relieved of their posts.

  • Article (78)
  • The election system shall be determined by legislation in which the conditions and procedures of nomination and election are specified.

  • Article (61)
  • By a decision from the president of the first instance court, a committee shall be formed to be called the Legal Aid Committee, which shall be chaired by a president of the court and membership of two of its Judges. The said Committee shall appoint a lawyer to perform and undertake duties of lawyers in the following cases:
    If either of the litigants is insolvent or unable to pay attorney fees, provided that such litigant is likely to prevail in the action;
    If there is a court order to relieve such litigant from the litigation expenses, in whole or in part;
    If a number of lawyers refused to accept representation in the action;
    If the lawyer died or encountered any impediment hindering him from practicing the profession, and, in general, in all cases where it is impossible for the lawyer to practice the profession and proceed with the legal proceedings and actions of his clients.
    All other cases where the law requires retention of a lawyer to defend a suspect or a minor who didn’t retain a lawyer.
    In any of these cases, the appointed lawyer shall take appropriate course of action to protect the interests of his client.
    The resolution issued by the Legal Aid Committee shall serve as a power-of-attorney issued by the concerned party, and shall be considered free of charge.
    The Legal Aid Committee shall make a resolution specifying the conditions and procedures governing the appointment of such lawyers.

  • Article (62)
  • At the stage of investigation, the court before which the case is heard, and the public prosecution, may appoint a lawyer to provide legal aid, in the cases and in accordance with the provisions set forth in the preceding article.

  • Article (63)
  • An appointed lawyer shall undertake the work assigned thereto, and shall not withdraw from a case except for reasons acceptable to the entity which appointed him.
    Should a lawyer refuse to provide legal aid without an acceptable excuse or committed negligence while performing his duties, such lawyer shall be subject to disciplinary measures.

  • Article (64)
  • A lawyer appointed to represent an insolvent party shall defend such party free of charge. However, the court shall assess his fees and oblige the losing party to pay such fees. The said lawyer may also recourse to the insolvent party for the fees if such litigant became solvent.

  • Article (65)
  • A lawyer who breaches the duties of his profession or commits any act in violation of its rules, or breaches any provision set forth herein, shall be subject to disciplinary penalties from among the following penalties:
    Warning;
    Reprimand;
    Suspension from practicing law for a period not exceeding one year; and
    Removal from the roll on which he is registered.

  • Article (66) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • The Department of Legal Profession Affairs at the Ministry shall investigate lawyers over violations committed thereby, upon the request of the Committee or, as regards violations committed by a lawyer before the court, upon the request of the presiding judge or upon the request of the concerned parties. The Department of Legal Profession Affairs shall file the disciplinary action and represent the disciplinary prosecution before the Board.
    A lawyer may select a lawyer to attend therewith during the investigation, or to retain him to appear on his behalf, except where the Committee requests appearance in person.
    After completion of the investigation, it shall be brought to the attention of the Committee to decide thereon,

  • Article (67) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • By a decision from the Supreme Judiciary Council, a disciplinary board shall be constituted and chaired by a judge of the Court of Appeal and consisting of two judges selected by the the Supreme Judiciary Council, a jurist at the Ministry to be chosen by the Minister, and a lawyer registered on the roll of lawyers permitted to appear before the Court of Cassation who is not one of the members to the Committee selected by its Chairman.
    A meeting of the board shall be only valid if attended by the majority of members, provided including the chairman. The said board shall have the following powers:
    Imposing appropriate disciplinary penalties from among the penalties set out in Article (65) of this Law;
    Considering suspension and renewal of suspension of lawyers referred to them for disciplinary liability.
    The remunerations of the chairman and members of the disciplinary board shall be determined by the Supreme Judiciary Council.

  • Article (68)
  • The resignation of a lawyer from practicing the legal profession or suspension of the lawyer from practicing law shall not prevent him from being subject to a disciplinary trial for violations committed during his practice of the profession. The trial proceedings shall commence within the three years following his resignation or suspension.

  • Article (69)
  • A defendant lawyer shall be notified to appear before the disciplinary board by a registered letter with acknowledgment of receipt, at least ten days prior to the scheduled hearing. The notification letter shall indicate the violation ascribed thereto and evidence in brief.
    A lawyer may appoint another lawyer to appear on his behalf, except where the board orders him to appear in person.

  • Article (70)
  • The board may, on its own, or upon request of the disciplinary prosecutor, or the defendant lawyer, summon witnesses whose testimony is deemed beneficial by the board. The board may ‎impose the penalties prescribed in the Penal Code on witnesses who refuse to attend despite being notified, or who attend but refuse to give a testimony.

  • Article (71) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • The sessions of the Board shall be held in camera, and its decisions shall be issued by the majority votes, after hearing the statements of the disciplinary prosecutor, and the defendant lawyer in case of his appearance. The grounds of the decision shall be read out in full when issuing such decision. The defendant lawyer shall be notified of the board’s decision by a registered letter with acknowledgment of receipt or any other similar means. The notification may be replaced by delivering a copy of the decision thereto.

  • Article (72) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
  • The board’s decisions may be challenged before the Court of Appeal within thirty days commencing, as regards the the Legal Profession Affairs at the Ministry, from the date of issuance of the decision, and, as regards the lawyer, from the date on which he was notified of the decision or on which a copy thereof was delivered thereto.
    The appeal shall be filed by a statement to be filed with the court’s clerk’s office. The said statement shall include the grounds for the appeal and the reliefs sought, and the supporting documents shall be attached thereto. The statement shall be served upon the respondent after a hearing is scheduled for consideration of the appeal.

  • Article (73)
  • The Committee shall be notified of the final disciplinary decisions to implement them and to enter them into a register designated for this purpose, and annotate accordingly to that effect in the roll on which lawyers are registered.

  • Article (73) bis – (It was added by virtue of: the Law No. (1)/2018)
  • No transfer of registration of a lawyer, who was subject to one of the following disciplinary, may be considered except after the elapse of the following periods:
    Six months in case of warning;
    One year in case of reprimand; and
    Two years in case of suspension from practicing law;
    The periods set out at this Article shall run from the date on which the penalty was imposed.

  • Article (73) bis (1) – (It was added by virtue of: the Law No. (1)/2018)
  • Disciplinary penalties imposed on a lawyer shall be deleted by the elapse of the following periods:
    Six months in case of warning;
    One year in case of reprimand; and
    Two years in case of suspension from practicing law;
    Five years, in case of removal from the roll on which he is registered.
    The deletion shall be made by a Committee’s decision without a need for a request from the lawyer.

  • Article (74)
  • If a final disciplinary decision, ordering removal from the roll or suspension from practicing the legal profession, was rendered against a lawyer, such decision shall be notified to all courts, the public prosecution, the Committee, and other relevant concerned entities.

  • Article (75)
  • A lawyer, against whom a disciplinary decision of suspension for a certain period was issued, may not open a law office during such period, and shall be deprived of all the rights of lawyers. However, such lawyer shall remain subject to the provisions of this Law. If such lawyer engaged in practicing the profession during the suspension period, a disciplinary penalty of permanent removal from the roll of lawyers shall be imposed against him. No lawyer removed from the roll may practice any legal work, except where the Committee decides to reinstate such lawyer in the roll, in accordance with the provisions hereof.

  • Article (76)
  • A lawyer, against whom a disciplinary decision of removal from the roll is issued, may apply to the Committee to be reinstated in the roll of lawyers, after the elapse of at least three years from the date of issuance of such decision. If the Committee deems that the period elapsed from the date of issuance of the decision is sufficient to reform the lawyer, and eliminate the impact of the violation committed by him, the Committee shall decide to reinstate such lawyer in the roll.
    If the application is rejectied, the lawyer may re-submit such application before at least one year from the date of the rejection decision.
    The procedures stipulated in this Law shall be followed while submitting reinstatement applications, in terms of the enrollment conditions and procedures and appeal of the decisions related thereto.

  • Chapter (9) Penalties Article (77):
  • Without prejudice to any other severer penalty provided for in any other law, a person who violates the provisions of Articles (3) and (24) hereof or practices the law profession while a disciplinary decision of removal from the roll or suspension from practicing is effective against him, shall be punished by detention for a period not exceeding 3 months and/or a fine not exceeding 10 thousand Riyals.

  • Article (77):
  • Without prejudice to any other severer penalty provided for in any other law, a person who violates the provisions of Articles (3) and (24) hereof or practices the law profession while a disciplinary decision of removal from the roll or suspension from practicing is effective against him, shall be punished by detention for a period not exceeding 3 months and/or a fine not exceeding 10 thousand Riyals.



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