Code of Ethics of the Legal Profession
- Article (1)
A lawyer must maintain, at all times, reverence and professionalism in his work to the extent appropriate for the heritage and nobility of the legal profession, as well as the dignity and decency as a lawyer registered on the roll of lawyers accepted by the Admission Committee of Lawyers and a member to the Qatar Lawyers Association.
- Article (2)
No lawyer may seek the help of any person to obtain another professional job. Further, a lawyer may not assist any unlicensed person to practice the legal profession and receive material compensation from the same.
- Article (3)
Retention of more than one lawyer in one case at the client’s desire shall not be considered a lack of confidence in any of the lawyers retained for the same case.
- Article (4)
In the event that there is more than one lawyer retained for the same case, the most experienced lawyer and the highest in the degree of registration shall lead the defense team. Should they are equal in terms of the length of experience and the degree of registration, the older lawyer shall lead the team, except where otherwise is instructed by the client.
- Article (5)
The relationship between litigants shall not affect the relationship between lawyers and their conduct towards each other. All personal disputes between lawyers should be avoided, and lawyers should refrain from presenting any personal dispute or disagreement between them before the court while handling the cases of their clients.
- Article (6) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
Younger and junior lawyers should show respect to senior and older lawyers. Senior lawyers should provide help to junior lawyers.
- Article (7)
A lawyer who had held a judicial position or a public position before being registered as a lawyer shall not accept or plead in any case which he had previously investigated or worked on while holding his previous position, or any case against the employer for which he had worked for a term of five years following leaving the previous position.
- Article (8)
No lawyer may cause harm to his client to achieve a personal benefit. Further, a lawyer may not harm any previous client in any case that may be presented to him to which the previous client is a party.
- Article (9)
No lawyer may represent parties with conflicting interests.
- Article (10)
A lawyer may not buy, or procure others to buy, any real estate which is registered in a will, mortgaged, or offered for judicial sale in a public auction, in the event that it is related to the case in which he pleads or represents one of its parties.
- Article (11)
A lawyer may not, in a professional capacity, provide legal advice contradicting the provisions of the laws in force in the State of Qatar.
- Article (12)
A lawyer must defend the accused, especially in cases to which he is assigned, regardless of his personal opinion in the case. A lawyer must take all means to defend the accused in accordance with the provisions of the law and in a manner that does not prejudice the freedoms or lives of people.
- Article (13)
A lawyer may not be a witness and a representative in a single case, and he must ward off suspicions that may lead to questioning his credibility.
- Article (14)
While being at the courthouse whether for a visit or pleading, a lawyer must respect the rules and instructions of the court.
- Article (15)
A lawyer may not request any person, whose testimony was requested by the court in any incident, to avoid appearing before the Court, with the intention of concealing facts from the court.
- Article (16)
No lawyer may knowingly provide the court with false documents or false information in order to mislead justice.
- Article (17)
A lawyer shall refrain from expressing his opinion or discussing any case in which he is not a party during the pleading, except where he is explicitly so requested by the presiding judge.
- Article (18)
A lawyer must separate any personal relations with the judges from their relationship with the judges during the court sessions. During the proceedings of the court sessions or in the judges’ council chamber, a lawyer may not express any opinion as regards any case in which he is not a party, whether such case is related to his clients or not.
- Article (19) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
The practice of the legal profession may be combined with the following:
Assuming a ministerial position or presidency of any parliaments or municipal councils;
Engaging in trade;
However, holding stakes and shares in shareholding companies shall not be deemed as engaging in trade.
Working at any ministry, government agencies, public bodies or institutions, associations, companies or banks, or working for individuals.
Working at another lawyer’s office by the lawyer shall not be deemed combining the legal profession with another job.
Engaging in any work which contradicts the lawyer’s dignity or which contradicts with the requirements of the profession.
Qatari faculty members who obtained a PhD degree and who teach law in a recognized university shall be exempted from the previous combination prohibition provisions.
- Article (20) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
The applicant who request to be registered on the roll of practicing lawyers shall firstly be registered on the roll of trainee-lawyers, in case of his failure to fulfill the conditions of registration in any other rolls attached thereto, and shall successfully complete a training term of six month at the Center for Judicial and Legal Studies, in addition to eighteen months at a practicing lawyer’s office who engaged in practicing the legal practice, or worked at the judiciary or public prosecution for at least five years. A trainee-lawyer may, during the period of enrollment at the Center for Judicial and Legal Studies, receive a monthly remuneration, the value and entitlement conditions of such remuneration shall be determined by a resolution from the Council of Ministers. By virtue of a resolution from the Committee, and in accordance with the rules it lays down, such remuneration may be paid by the Ministry until the end of the prescribed training period.
- Article (21) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
The Qatari faculty members who obtained a PhD degree and who teach law at a recognized university, or those who worked in the judiciary, public prosecution or performed any other legal work in any of the ministries, government agencies, public bodies or institutions, or private companies or organizations for at least 2 years, shall be exempted from the training term. The term of training shall be reduced by the period spent in engagement of the said works. Any exemption from or reduction of the training term shall be by virtue of a decision from the Committee.
- Article (22)
The practicing lawyers mentioned under Article (20) hereof shall accept trainee-lawyers who apply for training at their offices, and supervise such training and provide trainees with sufficient experience. Should the trainee-lawyer fails to find a lawyer to be trained at his office, the Committee shall issue a decision to enroll him at an office of one of the lawyers referred to in the preceding Paragraph. That latter lawyer may not, except where an excuse acceptable to the Committee exists, refuse the enrollment of such trainee-lawyer at his office.
- Article (23)
A trainee-lawyer may not appear in court in his name, but he may rather appear on behalf of the lawyer who supervises his training. A trainee-lawyer may not also sign the statements of claim, submissions and papers submitted to the courts. However, a trainee-lawyer may appear before the Court of First Instance in his name after the elapse of one year as of the date of his registration. A trainee-lawyer may appear before the bodies provided for under Article (3) hereof on behalf of the lawyer at whose office he receives training.
- Article (24)
The trainee-lawyer may not open an office in his name during the training period. In case of violating this provision, the Committee shall issue an order to close this office, without prejudice to any criminal or disciplinary prosecution of the offending lawyer. A trainee-lawyer may appeal against such closure order before the Committee, in accordance with the provisions of Article (29) hereof.
- Article (19) (amended by the Law No. 1/2018)
No lawyer may accept or defend any case to cause harm to the other party, if the matter is related to personal relations between such lawyer and the other party.
- Article (20)
A lawyer must treat the other party to the case with respect, and shall not, out of bias to his client, speak to him in a dishonorable tone or belittle him before or outside the court.
- Article (21)
A lawyer may not visit any governmental body, institution, or public or private authority to interview employees as regards matters related to a specific case without disclosing his profession as a lawyer and disclosing that he represents an individuals or entity in his capacity as a legal attorney.
- Article (22)
A lawyer may not sign a statement of claims or appeal for cases that are not related to him, or which were not assigned to his office in the usual manner.
- Article (23)
A professional lawyer’s obligation is an obligation of means. Hence, professional lawyers are not required to achieve a certain result.
- Article (24)
A lawyer must perform his or her profession by himself or by someone acting on his/her behalf.
- Article (25)
A lawyer is obligated to exert the necessary effort and shall be credible during pleading or during writing statements, and shall avoid offending any party or the opponent’s lawyer.
- Article (26)
A lawyer must include the following information on his papers, publications, or telephone directory:
His full name;
Degree of registration (first instance – appeal – cassation);
Number of office phone – mobile – fax;
O. box; and
Website and e-mail data.
- Article (27)
A lawyer who is opening a new office or changing his address must notify the Lawyers Admission Committee and the Qatar Lawyers Association of the same.
- Chapter (2): Obligations of Lawyers Towards Their Clients Article (28)
A lawyer is obliged to maintain confidentiality of his clients’ secrets and cases and not to disclose them to any body. A lawyer may not speak about the cases of his clients and their secrets, the nature of their relations and their family problems that come to his knowledge because of his profession to any person or to another client, except where the same is required, and provided procuring an express permission from the client and informing him of the same.
- Article (29)
A lawyer is obliged to treat all his clients in a good, fair and equal manner, with the same degree of care and sincerity, without any discrimination between the cases and the clients. A lawyer must bear in mind that all the cases entrusted to him are of equal importance.
- Article (30)
A lawyer shall not try to bring clients to his office through intermediaries and/or brokers, whether the same was for a commission or otherwise. A lawyer may not also use titles, positions, honorary or previous positions to attract clients or affect their freedom of choice. Furthermore, a lawyer may not advertise himself in newspapers and in other publications, visuals or audio, in violation of the law of the legal profession.
- Article (31)
A lawyer must make the necessary effort to obtain all the information related to any case presented to him before giving an advice on it. In addition, any opinion or advice from a lawyer must be based on the facts presented to him.
- Article (32)
A lawyer must, if the client so requests, resort to amicable solution as regards any case presented to him before initiating the case. If the amicable solution fails, the case file shall be submitted to the competent courts or the body concerned with resolving the dispute.
- Article (33)
A lawyer is obliged to inform the client of the details and proceedings of the case, and to inform him of the submissions of the opponent. Furthermore, a lawyer must also inform his client of any amounts deposited in the court treasury or released to the attorney on behalf of his client.
- Article (34)
A lawyer may not represent the two parties to the litigation at the same time or as regards the same case.
- Article (35)
A lawyer must conclude an agreement on the fees with his client. Such agreement must set forth the case data, the value of the fees, and the method of payment. This does not prevent appointment of a lawyer in a case with no fees, provided that the same is indicated in the said agreement.
- Chapter (3): Duties and Obligations of Lawyers towards Each Others Article (36)
The spirit of collegiality, respect, reverence, trust and solidarity must prevail in the relations between lawyers. They must cooperate to provide fraternal harmony among themselves, and all of them shall endeavor to achieve the goals of the profession and its highest standards.
- Article (37)
A lawyer must represent his colleague in appearing before the court, unless there is a legal or moral impediment to do so.
- Article (38)
In the event of any professional dispute between lawyers, lawyers themselves, or otherwise the Qatar Lawyers Association, shall make every effort to settle such dispute amicably.
- Article (39)
A lawyer must not incite employees of another lawyer to terminate their employment contract concluded with such lawyers. In the event that any of these employees leaves his work, a lawyer who wants to employ him must inform his colleague for whom such employee has been working. If such colleague has a legitimate objection to such employment, the lawyer should refrains from employing such employee until the reasons for the objection cease to exist.
- Article (40)
In the event of the lawyer’s illness, his colleagues shall appear on his behalf and follow up on his work. In the event of death, the lawyers appointed by the Legal Aid Committee must follow up the current cases with the late lawyer.
- Article (41)
Registered lawyers are obliged to train new lawyers, who are under training, in their offices, treat them as colleagues, take care of them, provide advice to them, and teach them the traditions and best practices of the profession. Trained lawyers must similarly treat the lawyers trained by them with due respect, whether at the training stage or after being registered before the Lawyers Registration Committee, and shall keep confidential all professional secrets which come to their knowledge in the offices where they are trained.
- Article (42)
A lawyer must not plead or delegate others to plead any case filed against another lawyer in his capacity.
- Section IV: General Provisions Article (43)
Lawyers are obliged to pay – on an annual basis – the fees of registration on the roll of practicing lawyers, in accordance with the provisions of the Legal Profession Law.
- Article (44)
Lawyers are generally obliged to appear before courts for the cases they handle. In the event that one of the lawyers absents himself on a continuous-basis without a valid excuse, the other colleagues may abstain from appearing on behalf of the absent lawyer. If a lawyer fails to appear for a long period without an excuse, the Association may submit a letter with the name of the defaulting lawyer to the Admission Committee of Lawyers to take the appropriate action thereagainst.
- Article (46)
The Association may take appropriate actions against any lawyer who violates the provisions of this Code, and file a memorandum regarding the violations to the Admission Committee of Lawyers.
- Article (47)
Upon approval of this Code by the General Assembly of the Qatar Lawyers Association, the provisions of this Code shall become binding on all lawyers registered on the roll of practicing lawyers kept with the Admission Committee of Lawyers. Any lawyer who will be in the future registered on the roll of practicing lawyers shall abide by the provisions of this Code. Submission of an application for enrollment on the list of practicing lawyers shall be deemed as consent from the applicant to abide by the provisions of this Code.
- Qatar Lawyers Association
This Code was approved on this Monday, 29 June 2015